Measuring Patient´s Complexity and Stability. In ORs and ICUs. In Real-Time.


We know that the human body is a super complex system of systems. Today, with technology from Ontomed it is actually possible to measure this complexity and to visualize and track its structure. In real-time. We research and deliver unique model-free technology and tools that analyze streaming multi-channel data - including all channel interactions - and process it to measure the instantaneous degree of complexity of a patient in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Operating Room (OR). Our goal is to deliver new knowledge and better understanding of the dynamics of the human body from a holistic and systemic perspective.

measuring the impact of therapy

Our technology allows us to express in quantitative terms the degree of success of the therapy based on pre and post-implant ECG analysis or based on the data stored in the implanted device (ICD or pacemaker). Both EEGs are processed using our OntoCare™ system to actually measure the impact of therapy, providing its breakdown into components.


Example of OntoCare™ ECG analysis


CRT (Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) complexity analysis is performed using data gathered before and after the implant of the device. Typically the ECG data, in the form of tensions (mV) at each electrode, are used. The ECG is recorded over the same given period of time before implant and upon follow-up.

OntoCare™ measures the difference between the topologies of the pre and post-treatment Complexity Maps. Once the topological distance has been determined, OntoCare™ ranks the contribution of each data channel to the said distance. With this information it is possible to determine where and to what extent has therapy been successful.


OntoCare™, How it works. Download

OntoCare™ Data Sheet. Download

OntoCare™ ECG. Download

OntoCare™ EEG. Download

Advanced Ecg and eeg processing

Complexity-based analysis of ECG data allows us to measure objectively the magnitude of various heart disorders. Thanks to complexity-based ECG processing it is also possible to classify patients in an innovative fashion, not just based on age, sex or NYHA class. In fact, complexity establishes a new means of heart risk ranking and stratification.

Multi-dimensional EEG representations

Just like in the case of an ECG, our technology offers the possibility to actually measure the intensity and magnitude of neurological disorders. In the case of epilepsy, for example, the difference between the complexity of the EEG before and during seizure is a measure of seizure intensity.

The information originating from a complexity analysis of an EEG may be used to rank patients, i.e. establish a quantitative “measure of coma” in analogy to the Glasgow coma scale While the Glasgow scale score is based on eyes opening, verbal and motor response, a complexity-based ranking is performed based entirely on patient’s EEG. It is therefore an objective index and takes into account the entire EEG as well as its structure. Finally, complexity may be used to measure the effects of artefacts or filtering on an EEG.

View Interactive Complexity Map of an EEG.


Technology and Services Brochure. Download

early-warnings in icu and or

Data in an ICU is complex and of dynamical nature. It is characterized by strong variability and is highly non-stationary, presenting couplings of varying degree between the different channels. Our complexity-based technology allows one to capture and integrate different OR or ICU-specific data to generate a single, holistic measure which is indicative of patient stability.

A first step in the process of measuring the complexity of data originating from various monitoring devices is to establish a map of the relationships between various data channels. This is done in real-time via a proprietary algorithm.  An example of such map is shown below and a detail is illustrated below.

Complexity map of multi-channel ICU data

Complexity maps offer a unique and novel representation of organ inter-actions, indicating those responsible for increased complexity and fragility.

COSMOS™ - a COmplexity-based Stability MOnitoring System - is shown here as it processes ICU data and computes in real-time the complexity of a patient, as well as short, mid and long-term stabilities. The bar chart on the left ranks vital signs in terms of their footprint on the system.

COSMOS™ Data Sheet. Download

Read about our Advanced Projects, on the frontier of genomics, molecular biology and complexity science.

Complexity technology establishes a radically innovative means of anticipating crises. Patients under severe stress or in critical conditions undergo either rapid complexity fluctuations or exhibit a consistent growth of complexity. Monitoring complexity allows us to identify precious crisis precursors which may go unnoticed and, most importantly, identify their sources. 

Real-time evolution of the complexity of a hospitalized patient in an Intensive Care Unit.

Our technology allows us to view a patient as a system of interacting systems and to measure, for example, his degree of stability. Knowing in quantitative terms how a given patient is stable is crucial before attempting surgery or other therapies. The stability of a patient is computed based on the rate of change of complexity over time.

Real-time evolution of the stability of a hospitalized patient in an Intensive Care Unit.

The degree of resilience is another systemic characteristic of a patient. Based on multi-channel data in an ICU or an OR, we can measure the resilience - the capacity of a patient to absorb and resist shocks, such as surgery, drugs, etc.

Real-time evolution of the resilience of a hospitalized patient in an Intensive Care Unit.

The critical state of every system, including hospitalized patients, corresponds to what is known as critical complexity. However, the critical complexity of a given patient changes over time. This is because under cases of severe injury or other critical and life-threatening conditions the human body is rarely in a state of equilibrium in which the dynamics of organ-interactions is very complex and intricate.

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